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Adam Knudsen to Serve on the Governor’s Climate Action Commission

Solar Plus Storage at Stafford Hill Solar Farm

Solar Plus Storage Installation at Stafford Hill Solar Farm in Rutland, VT

Dynapower, the leading independent supplier of energy storage solutions, is honored to announce that Adam Knudsen, President, will be serving on Governor Phil Scott’s Climate Action Commission.

“We are very excited to have Adam Knudsen and the team at Dynapower be a part of the Commission’s important work.  The company is on the cutting edge, leading the low carbon economy.  This is a Vermont-based manufacturing company building the foundation for the strong climate action-based economy Governor Scott envisions,” said Peter Walke, deputy secretary of the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources.

The goal of the Vermont Climate Action Commission is to develop solutions that grow the state’s economy by providing solutions for climate change, put Vermonters on a path to great affordability, and not leave vulnerable Vermonters behind.

According to scientists at NASA and around the globe, global climate change is already having adverse effects worldwide. The potential future effects of global climate change include more frequent wildfires, longer periods of drought, and an increase in the number, duration, and intensity of tropical storms.

“Dynamically enhancing our grid to reliably integrate as much clean renewable energy as possible is one of the keys to addressing climate change, both here in Vermont and abroad,” said Knudsen. “Energy storage is key to optimizing the use of energy on the grid, including the large scale integration of renewables into the grid.”

Dynapower’s energy storage inverters are installed on the island of Ta’u in American Samoa as part of a solar power and battery storage-enabled microgrid.

Knudsen will leverage Dynapower’s extensive experience in smart grid energy storage to contribute to and progress the objectives of the Climate Action Commission. Dynapower has connected over 375MW of energy storage inverters worldwide, including in Vermont at Stafford Hill and at its corporate headquarters in South Burlington. Installations with Dynapower inverters and energy storage systems have helped strengthen electric grids in several states including Vermont, California, Hawaii and Texas; provided backup power for critical facilities; reduced electricity bills for ratepayers; and enabled island nations to be run completely from renewable energy.

 

“We are proud to be on the forefront of such a transformative technology as energy storage that is already positively impacting communities around the globe. We are particularly proud to be doing this from Vermont, and to now bring that expertise to bear on Vermont’s approach to combating climate change, and help to create jobs in Vermont, is extremely gratifying,” said Knudsen. “The entire Dynapower team stands behind the Governor in supporting this important effort to chart a course forward for Vermont’s economy and the well-being of all Vermonters, and the planet.”

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Renee Naud Named Director of Human Resources & Corporate Counsel

Dynapower is pleased to announce the addition of Renee Naud to the Executive Management team as the Director of Human Resources and Corporate Counsel. Her focus in leading human resources at Dynapower will be to build upon employee support and engagement. As Corporate Counsel, Naud will provide first level support of legal and contract work and serve as liaison to external legal counsel to Dynapower.

renee naud the Director of Human Resources and Corporate Counsel Dynapower Company Vermont

“Given the increasingly global and technical nature of our growing business, we are excited to have Renee as part of the Dynapower team,” said Adam Knudsen, President of Dynapower. “As a proven business leader, talent manager, and corporate counsel, her skill set will not only provide an important link between our internal engineering and sales teams and our outside legal counsels, but will help Dynapower stay on the forefront of talent recruitment, retention, and development at our facilities in Vermont and California. As we negotiate international deals and build upon our rich base of intellectual property, Renee will be key in assisting Dynapower in the growing global market.”

Prior to joining Dynapower, Naud had a 17-year career delivering legal counsel to executive leadership and driving human resources functions and regulatory compliance for a world-leading plastic packaging manufacturer.

“I am excited and honored to be joining the Dynapower team to share and learn from such a dedicated group of people,” said Naud. “From Antarctica to Qatar to Alaska, I am impressed to see the scope of Dynapower and its products and services. My passion for manufacturing makes me proud to work for a company that has managed to create world-class technology locally, and succeed on a global scale. I am very excited to contribute to Dynapower’s team and mission.”

Some of Naud’s notable previous career accomplishments include integrating the human resources department into everyday business practices, maintaining accountability standards, and providing legal and professional guidance to companies competing on the global market. “My goal for Dynapower is to be as successful as possible, with the human resources and legal departments contributing value directly to the short and long term strategic and operational objectives of the organization.” said Naud. “The scale and scope of my HR and legal experiences bring something new to Dynapower, and I look forward to applying what I’ve learned and challenging us to build on the great work that has been done both internally and externally.”

Naud was born and raised in Detroit, Michigan, completing both her Bachelor of Arts degree in English and her Juris Doctorate at the University of Detroit. She is a licensed member in good standing of both the State of Vermont and Michigan legal bars.  She is a certified instructor trainer of ELI Civility Training, a workplace fair employment practice program, as well as an Instructor for eCornell’s online professional certificate program in Strategic Human Resources Leadership.

She lives in South Hero, Vermont with her partner, Marco. She enjoys beekeeping, baking and cooking as well as traveling and all things horsepower — motorcycling, classic cars, boating, and snowmobiling.

Richard Morin No Comments

Matt Paul: Dynapower’s New Sales Manager of After Market Services

Dynapower News Matthew Paul Sales Manager of After Market Services

Dynapower is pleased to announce Matthew Paul’s new position as the Sales Manager of Aftermarket Services. Matthew will provide an enhanced knowledge and understanding of Dynapower’s customer-base and their needs for Aftermarket Services to the business.

“I know Matt will make incredible strides for our Aftermarket Services business at Dynapower,” said Bob Gladden, the Vice President of Sales and Business Development at Dynapower. “His energy is contagious and his passion for taking care of our customers is second to none.”

Matthew has worked with Dynapower for over 5 years, beginning his career with Dynapower in 2011 on the production floor. He later moved to do work for the Sales and Customer Service departments, improving his knowledge of the Dynapower product, product applications, and customer needs. “I could not be happier or more excited for Matt,” said Scott Kerner, the Vice President of Sales at Dynapower. “Matt’s experience, ranging from having built our products to selling the parts and services that support them, puts Matt in a great position to drive growth and serve our customers. I look forward to seeing him succeed in this role and beyond with Dynapower.”

Some of Mr. Paul’s notable initiatives at the company include customer service operations, preventative care and maintenance programs, long-term service agreements, and spare parts sales. When asked about his time at Dynapower, Matthew said, “I have been fortunate to have the opportunity to grow and be mentored within this business. It has cultivated my understanding of our product and the power electronics markets. Dynapower is a business that values its team and is always looking forward.”

Matthew will take his extensive experience in the service industry to further support customers throughout the entire lifecycle of the Dynapower product. In addition, he emphasizes that this will be done to the same scale as Dynapower’s product reach, that is, globally. “Dynapower is making a commitment to customer support and service through the lifecycle of our products, and to expand on our current foundation of service and support,” said Mr. Paul. “I look forward to being at the forefront of that initiative with our team, working with our customers globally, to adapt to fit their needs.”

Matthew Paul of New Haven, Vermont is a former collegiate athlete and semi-professional football player. He is married with 2 children. Mr. Paul graduated from Lyndon State College with a B.S. in Music, Business and Industry.

Richard Morin No Comments

Ernest Bragg Joins Dynapower’s Industrial Sales Team

Dynapower News Industrial Sales Team

Dynapower is pleased to announce the addition of Ernest Bragg III to the Industrial Sales Team. Ernest will lead and manage customer accounts in the South East region of the United States’ industrial market. Mr. Bragg will provide a fresh perspective to the sales department with his experience and expertise in customer operations and sales support initiatives.

“Ernie has a very comprehensive understanding of Dynapower,” said Dev Massimi, the head Sales Manager for the Industrial Systems Department. “Having worked with us for many years, I am excited to see him take on this integral role in the sales team. His customer operations experience, combined with his detail-oriented mentality, will ensure that our customers will continue to receive the world-class service that our company is known for.”

Ernest’s father has worked with Dynapower for over 26 years as a team leader on the shop floor. Ernest began his career with Dynapower in 2011. Since then, he has worked in both the Marketing and Sales Departments, supporting various initiatives for all business segments.

Some of Mr. Bragg’s notable initiatives at the company include customer service operations development, supporting the industrial sales team and customer base, and performing industry, product, and market-based research. “Working for Dynapower over the last 6 years has been an incredible experience. During my time, I’m proud to have been a contributing factor to some of the positive changes within the company.” said Bragg. “I have developed a passion for our products and mission through these various initiatives. It makes me proud to work for a company that makes you feel like you are a part of the team and that your work is sincerely appreciated.”

Bragg, a proven customer operations expert, will continue to pull from his diverse business experiences in the industry to provide the same quality of service to the Industrial Sales Department’s current and future customers. When asked how these skills and experiences will leverage Mr. Bragg in his new role, he said, “Transitioning from Customer Operations into a sales role at Dynapower, I’m confident that I can bring a fresh perspective to the customer service aspect of the Sales Department. Having this background, I am excited to continue to assist customers by identifying solutions for their applications, while contributing to the growth of the business by identifying new customers in existing market segments.”

Ernest Bragg of South Burlington, Vermont is a former Vermont High School All-Star Quarterback, offensive MVP, and collegiate football player. He is a graduate of Castleton University with B.S. in Business Administration.

 

Richard Morin No Comments

Mark DeSantis Joins Dynapower as Senior Industrial Sales Engineer

Dynapower is pleased to announce the hiring of Mark DeSantis as senior sales engineer for Industrial Sales. DeSantis, a proven sales professional in the electro-mechanical industries, brings over 30 years of experience in sales and business development.

Dynapower News Sales Engineer

“With Mark’s tremendous background in selling highly technical products and proven results, we are all very excited to have Mark join the Dynapower team,” said Dev Massimi, Industrial Sales Manager. “Mark will be a key direct point of contact for our customers guiding their projects, and providing Dynapower customers with the excellent level of service and support that Dynapower is known for.”

DeSantis for his part is excited about the opportunity as well. “My goal is to increase sales, but more importantly to strengthen our relationship with present and future customers,” said DeSantis, a married father of two from Detroit, Michigan. “I am looking forward to sharing my experience in helping build teams and product lines with my new colleagues at Dynapower. With the the new products we are introducing and the evolving industrial markets its an exciting time to be a part of the Dynapower team.”

DeSantis is a graduate of Northwood University with degrees in business management and business administration.

Richard Morin No Comments

Dynapower Names Dev Massimi Industrial Sales Manager

Dynapower News Industrial Sales Manager

Dynapower is pleased to announce the promotion of Dev Massimi to Industrial Sales Manager at Dynapower. Massimi will lead the Industrial Sales team in continuing to provide customers with a valuable Dynapower sales experience and solutions while opening new markets worldwide for Dynapower’s SCR Rectifiers and Switchmode Power Supplies.

“Dev’s knowledge of our key industrial markets and customers is a major strength as he takes on this new role,” said Scott Kerner, the Vice President of Sales at Dynapower. “Dev’s entrepreneurial spirit and customer-oriented mindset will be instrumental in helping Dynapower grow in new areas while still taking care of our extensive customer base. I am thrilled to see Dev move into his new position, and I am highly confident in his ability to drive continued success for his team and Dynapower.”

Massimi has been with Dynapower for over 4 years in industrial sales. During his time with Dynapower, he has notably contributed to product development initiatives, customer service and experience programs as well as had remarkable success in product sales. These experiences have allowed him to gain an exceptional understanding of Dynapower products, the industrial markets, and the industry’s customer-base. “Dynapower is a large team of extremely talented individuals. Their dedication to our products, our customers, and each other is unmatched and I am proud to contribute to this mission,” said Massimi.

His dedication to the company lies in his commitment to helping Dynapower grow. “I am excited to be an integral part of the direction that Dynapower is moving in. By working collectively as a team, I am confident that we can continue to provide our customers with our world-class service.”

Dev has a fiancé, Tara, and two dogs, Abby and Mya. He is a graduate of the Manhattan School of Business at Manhattan College with a double major in Business Management and International Business.

Richard Morin No Comments

Dynapower Announces Bob Gladden as New Vice President of Sales & Business Development

Dynapower News Vice President of Sales and Business Development

Dynapower is pleased to announce the hiring of Bob Gladden, who will lead our industrial and high power divisions at Dynapower as the new Vice President of Sales and Business Development. Mr. Gladden will be an investment in the growth of Dynapower’s products and aftermarket services in burgeoning industrial sectors, both in the United States and abroad.

“Dynapower is fortunate to have someone of Bob’s experience join our team,” said Adam Knudsen, President of Dynapower. “His experience in opening new markets, developing new products and successfully leading sales organizations is impressive. Given our history of innovation in power electronics for the industrial space, the addition of Bob to our team will deepen our ability to serve our customers with new and innovative products and services, as well as rapidly bring Dynapower products to new channels and markets.”

Gladden had this to say of his new position:  “Dynapower is well established with a tremendous reputation for product innovation and reliability. My focus will be to build on this wealth of experience and innovation to open new channels, work alongside the team to develop new products, and bring the Dynapower name to new industries around the globe,” said Gladden. “I’ve been fortunate to know the team at Dynapower for several years now. Seeing their passion, creativity and desire to succeed is what attracted me to the opportunity. I am extremely proud to be a part of such a great team.”

Gladden, a proven customer-facing sales leader, will initially spend much of his time on the road meeting with key accounts to better learn their needs for existing and future Dynapower products. “One of Dynapower’s distinct advantages in the marketplace is our vertically integrated facility. We can quickly react to the needs of our customers to develop both standard and custom solutions that help our customers succeed. Getting that invaluable feedback and feeding that into our development process is crucial for our and our customers continued success,” said Gladden.

In addition to expanding markets for new sales opportunities for Dynapower’s power electronics, Gladden will oversee the expansion of Aftermarket Sales and Services. Dynapower services, repairs, and provides preventative maintenance and spare parts programs for Dynapower and Rapid Power rectifiers. Dynapower also maintains a robust control upgrade program for all models of rectifier systems and factory-based refurbishment programs. “We have an incredible wealth of knowledge and experience that guides our aftermarket resources. We want to broaden those offerings so our existing customers and new customers can get the greatest return on their investment from their equipment,” said Gladden. “There is tremendous opportunity for us to work alongside our customers to consider and plan for the life cycle of their equipment. Our equipment is built to the highest standards and operates in the harshest of environments. By putting into place proactive life cycle plans from purchase to replacement we can work alongside our customers to save them money.”

Gladden of Cleveland, Ohio is married with five children. He is a graduate of Ohio University with degrees in business and chemistry.

Richard Morin No Comments

Maximize PV Production with a DC-to-DC Converter

ADDING ENERGY STORAGE WITH A COST-EFFECTIVE DC-TO-DC CONVERTER WILL MAXIMIZE PRODUCTION & PROFITS OF INSTALLED NORTH AMERICA PV BASE

BY CHRIS LARSEN

Traditional storage plus solar (PV) applications have involved the coupling of independent storage and PV inverters at an AC bus, or alternatively the use of multi-input hybrid inverters. Here we will examine how a new cost-effective approach of coupling energy storage to existing PV arrays with a DC-to-DC converter can help maximize production and profits for existing and new utility-scale installations. This new approach leads to higher round trip efficiencies and lower cost of integration with existing PV arrays, and at the same time opens up new use cases not possible with traditional AC-coupled storage.

DC-to-DC Coupled Solar Plus Storage Revenue Streams

The addition of energy storage to an existing or new utility-scale PV installation allows system owners and operators the opportunity to capture additional revenues. Six distinct solar plus storage use cases are discussed below.  DC-coupled storage allows project owners to access all six of these use cases, and, as compared with AC-coupling, three use cases are only available with the DC-coupled approach — clipping recapture, curtailment recapture and low voltage harvest.

CLIPPING RECAPTURE
Maximize Value Of PV Generated Energy

Given common inverter loading ratios of 1.25:1 up to 1.5:1 on utility-scale PV (PVDC rating : PVAC rating), there is opportunity for the recapture of clipped energy through the addition of energy storage. Using a simplified system for illustrative purposes, consider a 14MWDC PV array behind a total inverter capacity of 10MWAC. Depending on your location and type of racking, the total clipped energy can be over 1,000,000 kWh per year. Without energy storage these kWhs are lost and revenues stunted. With storage attached to the array, the batteries can be charged with excess PV output when the PV inverter hits its peak rating and would otherwise begin clipping. This stored energy can then be fed into the grid at the appropriate time. Note that this ability to capture clipped DC output is only possible using a DC-coupled storage system.  


Clipping is a phenomenon where the DC-AC PV inverter has hit its peak AC output, for example 1MWAC, and therefore must drive the PV DC array voltage off of the maximum power point in order to effectively curtail the PV array. It is not possible to move or shunt this power to an AC-coupled battery system because doing so would force the PV inverter to exceed its rating to pass any excess PV energy onto the common AC bus.


Instead, using a DC-coupled storage configuration, the DC-DC converter will charge the batteries directly from the DC bus with the excess energy that the PV inverter cannot use. In the simple example of Figure 1 where there is a 1MW AC inverter with a 1.4MW DC array, during that time of day with the array is producing greater than 1 MW DC — perhaps from 10am to 2pm — that excess energy can be used by the DC-DC converter to charge the batteries for discharge through the PV inverter later at a predetermined time when the either the PV output is low or when there is a peak demand on the grid for kWh production.

CURTAILMENT & OUTAGE RECAPTURE
Continuous Uptime

PV inverters typically require a minimum threshold DC bus voltage to operate. On a 1,500VDC nominal system, this ‘wake up’ voltage may be around 500VDC. As a result of this minimum voltage threshold, available generated energy in the morning and
evening when voltage on the array is below the PV inverter ’wake up’ threshold is not captured.

Adding energy storage through a DC-to-DC converter allows for the capture of this generated energy from the margins. This phenomenon also takes place when there is cloud coverage. In both cases this lost energy could be captured by a DC-coupled
energy storage system. This capability is only available with a DC-DC converter that has voltage source capability.

CAPACITY FIRMING
Turn Solar Energy Into A Dispatchable Asset

Adding solar to storage gives the system operator the ability to bid firm capacity into merchant markets. That is, storage makes PV generation a dispatchable revenue generating asset. If your storage system is full charged entering the next 24-hour period, system owners can confidently bid into the day-ahead capacity market at any time of day and with no weather contingencies. Depending on the available local capacity market, this may translate to higher overall system revenue than if operated on a traditional flat $/kWh PPA rate structure.

 

ENERGY TIME SHIFTING
Utilize Generated PV Energy When Its Value is Highest

Energy storage allows bulk energy shifting of solar generation to take advantage of higher PPA rates in peak periods or to allow utilities to address daily peak demand that falls outside periods of solar generation.

While like capacity firming discussed previously, this is not a use case unique to or only available with a DC-coupled storage configuration, the lower installed cost of DC-coupled with the higher efficiency discussed below may make revenue opportunities such as energy time shifting and capacity firming pencil out — and economically attractive.

RAMP RATE CONTROL
Modulate Power for Continuous Grid Connection

Ramp rate control is often required by utilities and ISOs for PV and wind systems to mitigate the impact of a sudden injection of power onto the grid or a sudden loss of generation due to the intermittent nature of both generation sources.

A ramp rate of 1MW/minute, for example, has been required by HECO in Hawai’i to limit the speed with which a large array can come up to power or trail off in the event of cloud cover.

A storage system coupled with PV can monitor PV inverter output and inject or consume power to ensure the net output remains within the ramp requirements allowing for continuous energy injection into the grid.  Additionally, with this ramp rate control benefit, energy otherwise lost when a PV inverter would self-regulate during a ramp up (by manipulating the I-V curve to curtail power output) can now be stored for later use. That is, not only can the storage system provide a regulatory benefit during ramp up and ramp down (PV inverters alone can only modulate ramp up events), but there is some revenue recapture from the storage
of the excess energy during ramp up.

Note that the ramp up phenomenon is much sharper on arrays with higher DC:AC inverter loading ratios.  One of the desired effects of a large inverter loading ratio is the “boxier” output curve versus the traditional bell-shaped curve we associate with traditional PV systems with closer to a 1:1 DC:AC ratio.  The potential negative is that for grid areas where the ramp up is regulated, there is greater potential loss of otherwise sellable kWh during the ramp up.  Therefore, coupling PV with storage provides one more opportunity to optimize revenue from your utility-scale PV array.

Adding Energy Storage with a DC-to-DC Converter

As noted above, there are three coupling system options for adding energy storage to new or existing solar installations —
AC-coupled, hybrid solar plus storage inverters and DC-coupled with a converter. Dynapower has extensive experience in developing, manufacturing and deploying inverters and converters for each of these options.

Here we outline the benefits of our latest solution — the DC-to-DC converter — which is particularly suited for adding energy storage to existing utility-scale solar arrays. The battery capacity (MWh) can be scaled according to the site use cases and project economics.

Figure 6 Illustrates the basic design of a DC-coupled system. In this set-up the storage ties into the system behind the existing PV inverter and combines in parallel with existing PV strings at a recombiner. Depending on the size of the inverter and the use cases, designers can install multiple DC-DC converters in parallel on the DC PV bus.

FINANCIAL BENEFIT #1
Maximize all potential value streams

Of the previous outlined revenue streams available to PV with energy storage, the DC-coupled approach allows for revenues to be derived from all value streams — guaranteeing maximum value from an installed PV array. Not all revenue streams are available to AC-coupled or Hybrid inverter solutions. By virtue of tying in on the AC side of the PV inverter, AC-coupled solutions by definition cannot recapture clipped DC energy, for example.

FINANCIAL BENEFIT #2
Lower Installation and Regulatory Costs

Secondly, by adding energy storage on the DC PV bus, costs associated with adding energy storage can be greatly reduced. This includes equipment and EPC costs for AC switchgear, MV transformers and associated trenching. Additionally, because none
of the system’s AC characteristics change, there should be no need for a revised interconnection agreement or interconnection study.  For developers familiar with the interconnection study process in many jurisdictions, there is a great benefit of not getting caught in a long interconnection review queue or tying up internal or external engineering resources to guide systems through the process. Likewise, depending on the off-taker, there may be no need to alter an existing PPA.

 

FINANCIAL BENEFIT #3
Greatest Possible Efficiency

A chief concern with energy storage design for utility-scale PV integration is optimizing for highest efficiency. As illustrated below, the efficiency achieved via a DC-coupled storage system is greater than for AC-coupled.  This stems from the avoidance
of funneling power through two MV transformers in the charging process as is required by AC systems.

For the illustrative figures below we have even assumed a slight efficiency advantage in a DC-AC inverter over a DC-DC converter.

Figure 7 This figure illustrates the charge cycle (1) has single DC-DC conversion, while the discharge cycle (2) has DC-DC and DC-AC conversions and one transformer conversion.  The net is 3 power electronic conversions and one transformer conversion in the round trip. Assuming the following efficiencies, the net round trip efficiency = 93.5%  (98% DC-DC * 98% DC-DC * 98.4% AC-DC * 99% transformer.)

 

Figure 8 This figure illustrates an AC-coupled system where the charge cycle (1) has two DC-AC conversions and two transformer conversions and the discharge cycle (2) has a single DC-AC conversion and one transformer conversion. The net is 3 power electronic conversions and three transformer conversions in the round trip netting a total efficiency of 92.4%.  (98.4% inverter * 99% transformer * 99% transformer * 98.4% inverter * 98.4% inverter * 99% transformer)

 

FINANCIAL BENEFIT #4
Qualify for Tax Credits

The ability for a storage system to qualify for the federal PV investment tax credit (ITC) is based on the percentage of the battery charging energy that comes from the PV array. If charged energy from the array is less than 75% of the total for battery charging, then the battery system does not qualify for any ITC benefit. With a DC-coupled design, the storage system can only be charged from the PV array so there is zero risk of ITC claw back and tax credits are made available to the owner.

Furthermore, you eliminate the additional metering and controls needed with AC-coupled storage to verify that the batteries are charged from PV energy, further reducing CAPEX.

Conclusion
Dynapower recognizes that each PV installation has its own set of circumstances and considerations. As such we offer a full suite of options — AC-Coupled, Hybrid Solar Plus Storage and DC-Coupled — for coupling energy storage with utility-scale PV installations. The DC-to-DC option can be an attractive option for coupling energy storage with existing PV in many cases. Its ease and reduced cost of installation combined with its ability to bring online all additional value streams make it particularly attractive for the over 20 GW of installed utility-scale PV.

  

For further Information:

Chris Larsen
Senior Sales Engineer
clarsen@dynapower.com
1 (802) 488.2132

 

 

Chip Palombini No Comments

Storage System Options to Maximize Production of Utility-Scale PV

Maximizing Production and Revenues of Utility-Scale Solar with Energy Storage

BY CHIP PALOMBINI

NORTH AMERICA currently has over 20 GW of installed utility-scale PV generation with 2016 seeing the largest amount of PV installed to date with over 14 GW brought online. The majority of this installed utility-scale PV base could expand production hours and increase production with the addition of solar plus storage.

Here we will examine the coupling of energy storage with PV by comparing the three principal methodologies for doing so: AC-coupled, DC-coupled, and hybrid solar plus storage inverters. We will also consider all possible revenue streams of solar plus storage and their availability based on available systems for coupling solar plus storage.

Learn More About How Energy Storage Can Maximize Production of Utility-Scale PV Arrays Click To Tweet

Solar Plus Storage
REVENUE STREAMS
The addition of energy storage to an existing or new utility-scale PV installation allows system owners and operators the opportunity to capture additional revenues through:

CAPACITY FIRMING
Turn Solar Energy Into A Dispatchable Asset

For certain time periods during the day the availability of storage gives the system operator the ability to bid firm capacity into merchant markets. That is storage makes PV generation a dispatchable revenue generating asset.

Depending on the available local power market, this may translate to higher kWh rates for firm capacity during
dispatchable periods.

ENERGY TIME SHIFTING
Utilize Generated PV Energy When Its Value is Highest

Energy Storage allows bulk energy shifting of solar generation to take advantage of higher PPA rates in peak periods, or to allow utilities to address daily peak demand that falls outside periods of solar generation.

Figure 1

CLIPPING RECAPTURE
Maximize Value of PV Generated Energy

Given common inverter loading ratios of 1.25:1 up to 1.5:1 on utility-scale PV (PVDC rating : PVAC rating), there is opportunity for the recapture of clipped energy through the addition of energy storage.

Using a simplified system for illustrative purposes, consider a 14MWDC PV array behind a total inverter capacity of 10MWAC. Depending on your location and type of racking, the total clipped energy can be over 1,000,000 kWh per year. With storage attached to the array, the batteries can be charged with excess PV output when the PV inverter hits its peak rating and would otherwise begin clipping. This stored energy can then be fed into the grid at the appropriate time. Without energy storage, these kWhs are lost and revenues stunted.

Figure 2: Clipping recapture opportunity on systems with High DC : AC ratios

 

 

Figure 3: Graph of clipped energy over a year.

CURTAILMENT & OUTAGE RECAPTURE
Continuous Uptime and Revenue Generation

When storage is on the DC bus behind the PV inverter, the energy storage system can operate and maintain the DC bus voltage when the PV inverter is off-line for scheduled or unplanned outages. When the PV inverter is offline the energy from the array can still flow to the batteries via the DC-DC converter ensuring energy can be harvested for later use.

The same uptime capabilities apply when a large utility- scale array is curtailed by the ISO or utility. Curtailment is sometimes seen in areas of high solar penetration — such as California — when there is overall excess production on the grid. With a DC-coupled energy storage system, energy production can continue with energy being stored and available for discharge when curtailment.

LOW VOLTAGE HARVESTING
Make Money On The Edges

PV inverters typically require a minimum threshold DC bus voltage to operate. On a 1,500VDC nominal system, this ‘wake up’ voltage may be around 500VDC. As a result of this minimum voltage threshold, available generated energy in the morning and evening when voltage on the array is below the PV inverter ’wake up’ threshold is not captured.  Adding energy storage through a DC-to-DC converter allows for the capture of this generated energy from the margins.

This phenomenon also takes place when there is cloud coverage. In both cases this lost energy could be captured by a DC-coupled energy storage system.

Figure 4

RAMP RATE CONTROL
Modulate Power for Continuous Grid Connection

Ramp rate control is often required by utilities and ISOs for PV and wind systems to mitigate the impact of a sudden injection of power onto the grid, or a sudden loss of generation due to the intermittent nature of both generation sources.

A ramp rate of 1MW/minute, for example, has been required by HECO in Hawai’i to limit the speed with which a large array can come up to power or trail off in the event of cloud cover.


A storage system coupled with PV can monitor the PV inverter output and inject or consume power to ensure the net output remains within the ramp requirements. This allows for continuous energy injection into the grid.
Additionally, with this ramp rate control benefit, energy otherwise lost when a PV inverter would self-regulate during a ramp up (by manipulating the I-V curve to curtail power output) can now be stored for later use.

Learn More About the 3 System Options for Adding Energy Storage to Utility-Scale PV Arrays to Maximize Production Click To Tweet

AC-Coupled installation Sprigg Electric (San Jose, CA)

AC-Coupled Solar Plus Storage

AC-Coupled Solar Plus Storage System

In AC-coupled systems there are two inverters, one for the battery and another for the solar PV system. With this system configuration, the power to grid can be maximized by discharging both the battery and PV at maximum power. This configuration does pose integration challenges for microgrid operations.  Dynapower offers AC-coupled solar plus storage at both behind the meter and utility scale levels.

DC to DC Installation: Over Yonder Cay (Exums, Bahamas)

DC-Coupled Power System

Primarily of interest to grid-tied solar projects, the DC coupled solution is a relatively new approach for adding storage to both existing and new construction solar projects.

DC-Coupled Power System for Solar Plus Storage

Distinct advantages include reduced cost and potentially higher efficiency than the other options.

For the tropical island of Over Yonder Cay, Dynapower provided a bidirectional, DC-to-DC converter which integrates battery energy storage and solar PV into the island’s microgrid.

Installation: Hopewell Valley Central High School (Hopewell, New Jersey)

Hybrid Solar Plus Storage

Hybrid Solar Plus Storage System

With increased interest in combining solar and energy storage, Dynapower has created a line of Hybrid Solar Plus Storage inverters which have two DC inputs; one with maximum power point tracking for PV, and the second is bidirectional and intended for use with battery energy storage. This type of system is ideal for microgrids as integration is no long required between two separate inverters.

At Hopewell Valley Central High School, Dynapower teamed with PSE&G to deliver a 1 MW project using two Dynapower containerized solar plus storage systems. This project generates solar energy which is self-consumed by the school, and also features Dynapower’s proprietary backup power capabilities in the event of a grid disturbance.

AC/DC/HYBRID
SYSTEM COMPARISON

Have a solar plus storage project and not sure what inverter to use? Dynapower can help! Click To Tweet

Dynapower has successfully delivered all three system architectures for our customers in both grid-tied and microgrid applications. When evaluating which of the system architectures is optimal, the options must be compared across a variety of metrics including cost, efficiency, reliability, and flexibility. With over a decade of experience in solar plus energy storage and over 350 MWs of inverters deployed worldwide, Dynapower can assist you in selecting the optimal system for your existing or new PV array.

Chip Palombini
Sales Manager ESG
cpalombini@dynapower.com

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First Energy Storage Inverter to be Certified as Smart Inverter

Dynapower Energy Storage Inverter is the First Confirmed by Intertek to Meet UL 1741 SA Requirements for Smart Inverters

South Burlington, VT (February 20, 2017) – Dynapower, the global leader in energy storage inverters, and Intertek, a leading provider of quality solutions to industries worldwide, are proud to jointly announce that Dynapower’s MPS-250 is the first storage-only energy inverter to be confirmed by Intertek to meet the UL 1741 SA requirements for a “smart” inverter.

Compliance with this standard ensures that Dynapower’s MPS-250 smart inverter is California Rule 21 and Hawaii Rule 14H compliant through development of advanced inverter features. This was achieved by Dynapower through the use of Intertek’s SATELLITE™ Data Acceptance Program.

“Dynapower has always been on the forefront of energy storage inverter technology and we are extremely pleased and proud to receive confirmation from Intertek that our MPS-250 inverter meets the UL 1741 SA draft requirements,” said Chip Palombini, sales manager of the energy storage group at Dynapower. “Working through the Intertek SATELLITE program enabled Dynapower to have full control over the timeline of the compliance process.”

“Intertek is proud to work with global leaders like Dynapower to advance the energy industry through smart inverter functionality, enabling PV integration and improving grid resiliency, crucial steps toward smart grids and smart cities,” said Sunny Rai, Vice President of Renewable Energy at Intertek. “Dynapower’s storage-only energy inverters are the first confirmed by Intertek to meet the UL 1741 SA draft requirements, and they achieved this through Intertek’s SATELLITE program, which allows manufacturers to run more efficient compliance programs.”

In addition to the smart inverter features required by the new standard, Dynapower also incorporated Dynamic Transfer as a standard feature into the Generation 2 MPS-250. Dynamic Transfer enables a “backup power” mode of operation for energy storage systems.

About Dynapower

Dynapower is a global leader in the design and manufacture of power conversion equipment including high-power rectifiers, energy storage inverters, microgrid control systems and transformers. Dynapower provides power electronics solutions for energy storage, industrial, mining, military, and research applications. With more than 53 years of experience providing power electronics solutions to a global customer base, Dynapower’s product range includes discrete power electronics and fully integrated systems ranging from 100 kilowatts to 36 megawatts. Dynapower has more than 300 MW of the company’s high reliability, energy storage inverters deployed worldwide. For more information, visit: www.Dynapower.com.

About Intertek

Intertek is a leading Total Quality Assurance provider to industries worldwide. Our network of more than 1,000 laboratories and offices and over 40,000 people in more than 100 countries, delivers innovative and bespoke Assurance, Testing, Inspection and Certification solutions for our customers’ operations and supply chains. www.intertek.com

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For Dynapower & Media Inquiries:
Richard Morin
Marketing
Dynapower
+1 (802) 652-1313
rmorin@dynapower.com

For Intertek:
Sarah H. Linn
Senior Manager, Global Marketing
Intertek
+44 1372 370900 office
+44 7484 507334 mobile
sarah.linn@intertek.com